2019年人类挑战太空飞行的行程表:与未知和极限的勇敢约定

2019年1月5日 09:57
來源:香港奇点财经Singularity Financial

In the past year, NASA landed a probe on Mars, China launched a spacecraft to the far side of the moon, and commercial spaceflight firms like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic made important strides in their quest to take their first paying passengers into space. But if 2018 was a busy one for spaceflight, the coming year promises to be even busier.

在过去的一年里,美国国家航空航天局对火星进行了探测,中国向月球遥远的地方发射了一艘太空船,而SpaceX和维珍银河等商业太空飞行公司在寻求将首批付费乘客送入太空方面取得了重大进展。但如果2018年是太空飞行的繁忙时期,来年将更加繁忙。

Here are the most noteworthy space events scheduled for 2019 (all launch dates are subject to change):

以下是计划于2019年举办的最值得关注的太空活动(所有发布日期可能会有所变化):

JANUARY 2019

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft conducts a flyby of Ultima Thule 
美国国家航空航天局的“新视野”号航天器执行Ultima Thule的飞越

The New Horizons probe was designed to study Pluto. But after its successful rendezvous with the dwarf planet in 2015, the craft continued speeding along into the Kuiper Belt, a debris-filled region of the solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune. Here, at a distance of about 4 billion miles from Earth, New Horizons will zoom past the icy object 2014 MU69, which is nicknamed Ultima Thule, on Jan. 1. The New Year’s rendezvous will make Ultima the most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft.

“新视野”号探测器旨在研究冥王星。 但是在2015年与矮行星成功会合后,飞船继续飞向柯伊伯带,这是太空系统中一个碎片填充的区域,超出了海王星的轨道。 在距离地球大约40亿英里的地方,“新视野”号在1月1日通过冰冷的物体2014 MU69,绰号为Ultima Thule(“天涯海角”)。

(Note from Hong Kong Media Singularity Financial Ltd: According to the US magazine “Wired” report, this is not only a flying mission but also space archaeological exploration. Ultima Thule is considered to be one of the remnants of the formation of the solar system. It is a cosmic waste formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Astronomers believe that these celestial bodies are not only ancient, but they are also preserved when they are close to absolute zero. In other words, it may have not changed since the formation of the solar system. This is why astronomers are so excited to observe the “Ultima Thule” at close range. )

香港奇点财经注:据美国杂志“连线”报道称,这不仅是一次飞掠任务,还是一次宇宙考古探险。“天涯海角”被认为是太阳系形成的残余物之一,是大约46亿年前形成的宇宙垃圾。天文学家认为,这些天体不仅古老,它们是在接近绝对零度时保存下来的。换言之,可能自太阳系形成以来,它就未曾改变过。这正是天文学家即将近距离观测到“天涯海角”而如此兴奋的原因。)

—- NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft is set to zip by 2014 MU69, nicknamed “Ultima Thule,” a Kuiper Belt object that orbits 1 billion miles beyond Pluto.NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

China makes first landing on the far side of the moon
中国探测器嫦娥四号实现历史上首次在月球背面着陆

On Dec. 7, China launched its robotic Chang’e 4 spacecraft on the world’s first mission to the far side of the moon. The robotic lander and the rover being carried on the craft touched down on Jan. 3 Beijing local time within the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the moon’s largest and oldest impact craters. The Chang’e 4 mission is a prelude to a successor robotic mission, Chang’e 5, which is designed to return lunar samples to Earth.

12月7日,中国发射了嫦娥四号飞船, 是世界上第一次飞往月球远端的任务。 1月3日北京当地时间,机器人着陆器和运载车降落在月球南极 – 艾特肯盆地内,月球上最大和最古老的撞击坑之一。 嫦娥四号任务仅仅是前奏,嫦娥五号,旨在将月球样本送回地球。

Although a latecomer by decades to space exploration, China is quickly catching up, experts say, and could challenge the United States for supremacy in artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and other fields.

专家说,虽然在太空探索方面晚了几十年,中国正在迅速赶上,并可能在人工智能、量子计算等领域挑战美国的霸主地位。

“This space mission shows that China has reached the advanced world-class level in deep space exploration,” said Zhu Menghua, a professor at the Macau University of Science and Technology who has worked closely with China’s space administration. “We Chinese people have done something that the Americans have not dared try.”

“这次太空任务表明,中国在外太空探索方面已经达到世界先进水平,”与中国国家航天局密切合作的澳门科技大学教授祝梦华表示。“我们中国人做了美国人不敢尝试的事情。”

 

—- A Long March-3B rocket carrying the Chang’e 4 lunar probe takes off from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China’s Sichuan province on Dec. 8, 2018.Reuters

SpaceX performs a first test flight of new crew capsule
SpaceX执行新船员舱的首次试飞

SpaceX has been developing its Crew Dragon capsule as a replacement for NASA’s space shuttles, which were retired in 2011. Prior to New Year, Hong Kong Media Singularity Financial Ltd introduced an article, heavily emphasizing on Elon Musk and his Starship ambition in 2019. The new craft is designed to ferry up to seven astronauts to and from the International Space Station, ending NASA’s reliance on Russia’s Soyuz capsules.

SpaceX一直在开发其Crew Dragon太空舱作为NASA航天飞机的替代品。香港奇点财经年前写过一篇文章介绍“Elon Musk 和他的Starship- 2019年人类的太空之年”。 NASA航天飞机于2011年退役。这艘新太空舱的设计目的是向国际空间站运送多达七名宇航员,结束NASA对俄罗斯联盟号胶囊的依赖。

During its first uncrewed test flight, which is scheduled no earlier than Jan. 17, the capsule will launch aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, dock with the space station and then return to Earth, splashing down in the Atlantic Ocean. If it’s successful, the Crew Dragon’s first test flight with astronauts aboard will follow later in the year.

在计划不早于1月17日进行的第一次无人乘坐测试飞行,太空舱将从佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角登上SpaceX Falcon 9火箭,与太空站对接,然后返回地球,在大西洋上降落。如果成功的话,太空舱首次乘坐宇航员的试飞将在今年晚些时候进行。

—- SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule is designed to carry up to seven passengers. Jae C. Hong / AP

Israel launches its first spacecraft to the moon
以色列计划向月球发射第一艘太空船

Sometime in the first quarter of 2019, a Tel Aviv-based nonprofit called SpaceIL will launch a 1,322-pound lunar lander on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The lander, recently named Beresheet, the Hebrew word for “Genesis”. With the mission, Israel hopes to become the fourth nation to land a craft on the moon, after the U.S., Russia, and China. That launch is currently scheduled for mid-February.  The spacecraft will land about two months after launch. If successful, it will be the first non-governmental spacecraft to land on the moon.

在2019年第一季度,一家名为SpaceIL的以色列特拉维夫非营利组织将在佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角的SpaceX Falcon 9火箭上发射一枚重达1,322磅的月球着陆器。着陆器命名为Beresheet,希伯来语中的Genesis。随着这项任务,以色列希望成为仅次于美国,俄罗斯和中国的第四个在月球登陆飞行器的国家。该发射目前定于2月中旬。该航天器将在发射后大约两个月降落。如果成功,这将是第一个非政府飞船登陆月球。

—- The SpaceIL lunar spacecraft.

India launches its second mission to the moon
印度启动了第二次月球任务

On Jan. 31, India’s space agency will launch its second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, sending a robotic orbiter, lander, and rover to the moon. Chandrayaan-2, which will touch down at the lunar south pole, will study the moon’s mineral content and its topography. India’s first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, launched in October 2008. That mission found evidence of water ice on the moon’s surface.

131日,印度航天局将发射第二次月球任务Chandrayaan-2,向月球发射机器人轨道器,着陆器和漫游车。 将在月球南极降落的Chandrayaan-2将研究月球的矿物含量及其地形。印度的第一个月球任务Chandrayaan-1200810月发射。该任务发现了月球表面水冰的证据。

—- A model of the Chandrayaan-2 rover being tested for operations under lunar gravity.ISRO

 

FEBRUARY 2019

London-based Startup launches the first set of satellites for all-Earth internet
伦敦的初创公司准备为全地球互联网推出了第一套卫星

Sometime in February, a London-based startup called OneWeb will launch the first 10 satellites of what ultimately will be a fleet of 600 telecommunications satellites designed to provide high-speed internet service to every part of the world. The satellites will launch aboard an Arianespace Soyuz rocket from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana.

2月份时,位于伦敦的一家名为OneWeb的初创公司将推出最初的10颗卫星,这些卫星最终将成为600颗电信卫星的头一批,旨在为世界各地提供高速互联网服务。 这些卫星将从法属圭亚那的圭亚那航天中心发射一枚阿丽亚娜空间联盟号火箭。

Backed by SoftBank, Intelsat, Coca-Cola and other investors, OneWeb is creating a constellation of small telecom satellites with the goal of making the internet accessible to everyone on Earth by 2027. How many satellites exactly is still to be determined — OneWeb in March asked the U.S. Federal Communications Commission to expand its authorization from 720 to 1,980 Ku-band satellites. The company still expects to begin service in 2019, starting with the first few hundred spacecraft.

由SoftBank,Intelsat,可口可乐和其他投资者支持,OneWeb正在创建一个小型电信卫星星座,其目标是到2027年让地球上的每个人都可以访问互联网。有多少卫星还有待确定 – 三月的OneWeb 美国联邦通信委员会要求将其授权范围从720个扩展到1,980个Ku波段卫星。 该公司仍然期望在2019年开始服务,从最初的几百艘航天器开始。

—- One of OneWeb’s first satellites, built in Toulouse, France by its Airbus joint venture OneWeb Satellites. Credit: OneWeb

Soyuz rocket takes the crew to the International Space Station
联盟号火箭将船员带到国际空间站

On Feb. 28, a Russian Soyuz rocket will lift off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, carrying NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch and Russian cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin to the ISS. The crew will join three spaceflyers who are already aboard the station.

2月28日,俄罗斯联盟号火箭将从哈萨克斯坦的拜科努尔航天发射场起飞,将NASA宇航员尼克·海格和克里斯蒂娜·科赫以及俄罗斯宇航员阿列克谢·奥夫金宁带到国际空间站。 机组人员将加入三名已经登上火车站的太空飞行员。

 

MARCH 2019

Boeing conducts a first test flight of its CST-100 Starliner capsule
波音公司对其CST-100 Starliner胶囊进行首次试飞

Like SpaceX, Boeing is developing a space capsule to replace NASA’s retired space shuttle fleet. Sometime in March, Its CST-100 Starliner will take its maiden flight aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with the uncrewed capsule docking with the space station before parachuting back to Earth. If the test is successful, Boeing could conduct crewed test flights of the Starliner in August.

与SpaceX一样,波音正在开发一种太空舱,以取代NASA退役的航天飞机机队。 3月份的时候,它的CST-100 Starliner将从佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角的一枚Atlas V火箭上进行首次飞行,在飞机返回地球之前,与太空站的固定舱口对接。 如果测试成功,波音可以进行Starliner 在八月的测试飞行。

—- Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner capsule is designed to ferry up to seven astronauts to the International Space Station. Boeing

 

SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket returns to space
SpaceX的猎鹰重型火箭返回太空

SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy booster completed its maiden launch on Feb. 6, 2018, lifting off from Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, and launching a Tesla Roadster into space. On its second flight, which is planned for early in 2019, the huge rocket will carry 25 individual payloads for the U.S. military and NASA, including weather satellites and a space radiation experiment. The Falcon Heavy can lift a heavier payload than any American rocket since NASA’s Saturn V booster, which carried Apollo astronauts to the moon in the 1960s and ’70s.

SpaceX的猎鹰重型助推器于2018年2月6日完成首次发射,从佛罗里达州卡纳维拉尔角的肯尼迪航天中心起飞,并将特斯拉跑车推向太空。 在计划于2019年初进行的第二次飞行中,这枚巨型火箭将为美国军方和美国宇航局携带25个独立的载荷,包括气象卫星和太空辐射实验品。自从美国宇航局的土星V助推器以来,猎鹰重型飞机可以驾驭比美国任何火箭更重的载荷,土星V助推器是在20世纪60年代和70年代将阿波罗宇航员带到了月球上。

—- The SpaceX Falcon Heavy launches from Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Feb. 6, 2018.Jim Watson / AFP – Getty Images

 

JUNE 2019

SpaceX launches first crewed test flight of its Crew Dragon capsule
SpaceX将推出其Crew Dragon太空舱的第一次带人试飞

If the uncrewed test flight of SpaceX’s Crew Dragon is successful, the craft will return to space with two spaceflyers aboard. NASA astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken will fly Crew Dragon to the space station.

如果SpaceX’s Crew Dragon的无人太空舱的试飞成功,飞行器将返回太空,将两名太空飞行员载入太空。 NASA宇航员Doug Hurley和Bob Behnken将乘坐Crew Dragon飞往太空站。

Three space station crew members return to Earth
三名空间站工作人员返回地球

NASA astronaut Anne McClain, Canadian astronaut David Saint-Jacques, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko will return to Earth in their Soyuz capsule, landing in Kazakhstan sometime in June.

美国宇航局宇航员安妮麦克莱恩,加拿大宇航员大卫圣雅克和俄罗斯宇航员奥列格科诺宁科将通过他们的联盟号返回地球,并于6月份降落在哈萨克斯坦。

 

JULY 2019

China conducts the first test of next-generation crewed spacecraft
中国对下一代载人航天器将进行首次试验

China is expected to test the successor to its crewed Shenzhou spacecraft sometime in mid-2019, but a detailed timeline of the mission hasn’t yet been revealed. For its first test flight, the reusable 20-ton spacecraft will launch aboard a Chinese Long March 5B rocket without a crew. China currently uses its Shenzhou spacecraft for trips to and from low-Earth orbit.

预计中国将在2019年中期测试神舟号航天器的继任者,但该任务的详细时间表尚未公布。 对于首次试飞,可重复使用的20吨重的太空船将在没有机组人员的情况下在中国长征5B火箭上发射。 中国目前使用其神舟号飞船进出低地轨道。

50th anniversary of Apollo 11 moon landing
阿波罗11号登月50周年

On July 20, it will be 50 years since astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon. As he climbed down the ladder of his lunar module and stepped onto the surface of the moon in 1969, Armstrong uttered the line that became famous: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” Armstrong and his crewmate Buzz Aldrin explored the moon’s surface for almost three hours before climbing back into their lunar module and heading home.

7月20日,将是宇航员尼尔阿姆斯特朗成为第一个踏上月球的50周年纪念日。 阿姆斯特朗在1969年踩到月球表面时说出了一句名言:“这对于一个人来说是一小步,对整个人类是一个巨大的飞跃。” 阿姆斯特朗和他的同事巴兹·奥尔德林在攀登月球表层并返回之前,探测了月球表面近三个小时。

 

DECEMBER 2019

China launches a sample-return mission to the moon
中国启动月球样品回归任务

After its Chang’e 4 mission to the lunar far side, China will attempt an even more ambitious lunar mission sometime toward the end of the year. Chang’e 5 will include a lander designed to collect samples of lunar rocks and soil and return them to Earth.

嫦娥四号登月之后,中国计划将在年底前尝试更加雄心勃勃的月球任务。 嫦娥5号将发射一个用于收集月球岩石和土壤样本的着陆器并将它们送回地球。

If successful, it would be the first time materials from the moon will have been brought back to Earth since 1976.

如果成功,这将是自1976年以来第一次将月球上的材料带回地球。