2019年人類挑戰太空飛行的行程表 – 與未知與極限的勇敢約定

2019年1月5日 09:57
来源:香港奇點財經Singularity Financial

In the past year, NASA landed a probe on Mars, China launched a spacecraft to the far side of the moon, and commercial spaceflight firms like SpaceX and Virgin Galactic made important strides in their quest to take their first paying passengers into space. But if 2018 was a busy one for spaceflight, the coming year promises to be even busier.

在過去的一年裡,美國國家航空航天局對火星進行了探測,中國向月球遙遠的地方發射了一艘太空船,而SpaceX和維珍銀河等商業太空飛行公司在尋求將首批付費乘客送入太空方面取得了重大進展。但如果2018年是太空飛行的繁忙時期,來年將更加繁忙。

Here are the most noteworthy space events scheduled for 2019 (all launch dates are subject to change):

以下是計劃於2019年舉辦的最值得關註的太空活動(所有發布日期可能會有所變化):

JANUARY 2019

NASA』s New Horizons spacecraft conducts flyby of Ultima Thule 
美國國家航空航天局的「新視野」號航天器執行Ultima Thule的飛越

The New Horizons probe was designed to study Pluto. But after its successful rendezvous with the dwarf planet in 2015, the craft continued speeding along into the Kuiper Belt, a debris-filled region of the solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune. Here, at a distance of about 4 billion miles from Earth, New Horizons will zoom past the icy object 2014 MU69, which is nicknamed Ultima Thule, on Jan. 1. The New Year』s rendezvous will make Ultima the most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft.

「新視野」號探測器旨在研究冥王星。 但是在2015年與矮行星成功會合後,飛船繼續飛向柯伊伯帶,這是太空系統中一個碎片填充的區域,超出了海王星的軌道。 在距離地球大約40億英裡的地方,「新視野」號在1月1日通過冰冷的物體2014 MU69,綽號為Ultima Thule(「天涯海角」)。

(Note from Hong Kong Media Singularity Financial Ltd: According to the US magazine “Wired” report, this is not only a flying mission but also space archaeological exploration. Ultima Thule is considered to be one of the remnants of the formation of the solar system. It is a cosmic waste formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Astronomers believe that these celestial bodies are not only ancient, but they are also preserved when they are close to absolute zero. In other words, it may have not changed since the formation of the solar system. This is why astronomers are so excited to observe the “Ultima Thule” at close range. )

香港奇點財經註:據美國雜志「連線」報道稱,這不僅是一次飛掠任務,還是一次宇宙考古探險。「天涯海角」被認為是太陽系形成的殘餘物之一,是大約46億年前形成的宇宙垃圾。天文學家認為,這些天體不僅古老,它們是在接近絕對零度時保存下來的。換言之,可能自太陽系形成以來,它就未曾改變過。這正是天文學家即將近距離觀測到「天涯海角」而如此興奮的原因。)

—- NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft is set to zip by 2014 MU69, nicknamed “Ultima Thule,” a Kuiper Belt object that orbits 1 billion miles beyond Pluto.NASA/JHUAPL/SwRI

China makes first landing on the far side of the moon
中國探測器嫦娥四號實現历史上首次在月球背面著陸

On Dec. 7, China launched its robotic Chang』e 4 spacecraft on the world』s first mission to the far side of the moon. The robotic lander and the rover being carried on the craft touched down on Jan. 3 Beijing local time within the South Pole-Aitken basin, one of the moon』s largest and oldest impact craters. The Chang』e 4 mission is a prelude to a successor robotic mission, Chang』e 5, which is designed to return lunar samples to Earth.

12月7日,中國發射了嫦娥四號飛船, 是世界上第一次飛往月球遠端的任務。 1月3日北京當地時間,機器人著陸器和運載車降落在月球南極 – 艾特肯盆地內,月球上最大和最古老的撞擊坑之一。 嫦娥四號任務僅僅是前奏,嫦娥五號,旨在將月球樣本送回地球。

Although a latecomer by decades to space exploration, China is quickly catching up, experts say, and could challenge the United States for supremacy in artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and other fields.

專家說,雖然在太空探索方面晚了幾十年,中國正在迅速趕上,並可能在人工智能、量子計算等領域挑戰美國的霸主地位。

「This space mission shows that China has reached the advanced world-class level in deep space exploration,」 said Zhu Menghua, a professor at the Macau University of Science and Technology who has worked closely with China』s space administration. 「We Chinese people have done something that the Americans have not dared try.」

「這次太空任務表明,中國在外太空探索方面已經達到世界先進水平,」與中國國家航天局密切合作的澳門科技大學教授祝夢華表示。「我們中國人做了美國人不敢嘗試的事情。」

 

—- A Long March-3B rocket carrying the Chang’e 4 lunar probe takes off from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in China’s Sichuan province on Dec. 8, 2018.Reuters

SpaceX performs first test flight of new crew capsule
SpaceX執行新船員艙的首次試飛

SpaceX has been developing its Crew Dragon capsule as a replacement for NASA』s space shuttles, which were retired in 2011. Prior to New Year, Hong Kong Media Singularity Financial Ltd introduced an article, heavily emphasizing on Elon Musk and his Starship ambition in 2019. The new craft is designed to ferry up to seven astronauts to and from the International Space Station, ending NASA’s reliance on Russia』s Soyuz capsules.

SpaceX一直在開發其Crew Dragon太空艙作為NASA航天飛機的替代品。香港奇點財經年前寫過一篇文章介紹「Elon Musk 和他的Starship- 2019年人類的太空之年」。 NASA航天飛機於2011年退役。這艘新太空艙的設計目的是向國際空間站運送多達七名宇航員,結束NASA對俄羅斯聯盟號膠囊的依賴。

During its first uncrewed test flight, which is scheduled no earlier than Jan. 17, the capsule will launch aboard a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, dock with the space station and then return to Earth, splashing down in the Atlantic Ocean. If it』s successful, the Crew Dragon’s first test flight with astronauts aboard will follow later in the year.

在計劃不早於1月17日進行的第一次無人乘坐測試飛行,太空艙將從佛羅裡達州卡納維拉爾角登上SpaceX Falcon 9火箭,與太空站對接,然後返回地球,在大西洋上降落。如果成功的話,太空艙首次乘坐宇航員的試飛將在今年晚些時候進行。

—- SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule is designed to carry up to seven passengers. Jae C. Hong / AP

Israel launches its first spacecraft to the moon
以色列計劃向月球發射第一艘太空船

Sometime in the first quarter of 2019, a Tel Aviv-based nonprofit called SpaceIL will launch a 1,322-pound lunar lander on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The lander, recently named Beresheet, the Hebrew word for 「Genesis」. With the mission, Israel hopes to become the fourth nation to land a craft on the moon, after the U.S., Russia and China. That launch is currently scheduled for mid-February.  The spacecraft will land about two months after launch. If successful, it will be the first non-governmental spacecraft to land on the moon.

在2019年第一季度,一家名為SpaceIL的以色列特拉維夫非營利組織將在佛羅裡達州卡納維拉爾角的SpaceX Falcon 9火箭上發射一枚重達1,322磅的月球著陸器。著陸器命名為Beresheet,希伯來語中的Genesis。隨著這項任務,以色列希望成為僅次於美國,俄羅斯和中國的第四個在月球登陸飛行器的國家。該發射目前定於2月中旬。該航天器將在發射後大約兩個月降落。如果成功,這將是第一個非政府飛船登陸月球。

—- The SpaceIL lunar spacecraft.

India launches its second mission to the moon
印度啓動了第二次月球任務

On Jan. 31, India』s space agency will launch its second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, sending a robotic orbiter, lander and rover to the moon. Chandrayaan-2, which will touch down at the lunar south pole, will study the moon’s mineral content and its topography. India』s first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, launched in October 2008. That mission found evidence of water ice on the moon’s surface.

131日,印度航天局將發射第二次月球任務Chandrayaan-2,向月球發射機器人軌道器,著陸器和漫游車。 將在月球南極降落的Chandrayaan-2將研究月球的礦物含量及其地形。印度的第一個月球任務Chandrayaan-1200810月發射。該任務發現了月球表面水冰的證據。

—- A model of the Chandrayaan-2 rover being tested for operations under lunar gravity.ISRO

 

FEBRUARY 2019

London-based Startup launches first set of satellites for all-Earth internet
倫敦的初創公司準備為全地球互聯網推出了第一套衞星

Sometime in February, a London-based startup called OneWeb will launch the first 10 satellites of what ultimately will be a fleet of 600 telecommunications satellites designed to provide high-speed internet service to every part of the world. The satellites will launch aboard an Arianespace Soyuz rocket from the Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana.

2月份時,位於倫敦的一家名為OneWeb的初創公司將推出最初的10顆衞星,這些衞星最終將成為600顆電信衞星的頭一批,旨在為世界各地提供高速互聯網服務。 這些衞星將從法屬圭亞那的圭亞那航天中心發射一枚阿麗亞娜空間聯盟號火箭。

Backed by SoftBank, Intelsat, Coca-Cola and other investors, OneWeb is creating a constellation of small telecom satellites with the goal of making the internet accessible to everyone on Earth by 2027. How many satellites exactly is still to be determined — OneWeb in March asked the U.S. Federal Communications Commission to expand its authorization from 720 to 1,980 Ku-band satellites. The company still expects to begin service in 2019, starting with the first few hundred spacecraft.

由SoftBank,Intelsat,可口可樂和其他投資者支持,OneWeb正在創建一個小型電信衞星星座,其目標是到2027年讓地球上的每個人都可以訪問互聯網。有多少衞星還有待確定 – 三月的OneWeb 美國聯邦通信委員會要求將其授權範圍從720個擴展到1,980個Ku波段衞星。 該公司仍然期望在2019年開始服務,從最初的幾百艘航天器開始。

—- One of OneWeb’s first satellites, built in Toulouse, France by its Airbus joint venture OneWeb Satellites. Credit: OneWeb

Soyuz rocket takes crew to the International Space Station
聯盟號火箭將船員帶到國際空間站

On Feb. 28, a Russian Soyuz rocket will lift off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, carrying NASA astronauts Nick Hague and Christina Koch and Russian cosmonaut Alexey Ovchinin to the ISS. The crew will join three spaceflyers who are already aboard the station.

2月28日,俄羅斯聯盟號火箭將從哈薩克斯坦的拜科努爾航天發射場起飛,將NASA宇航員尼克·海格和克裡斯蒂娜·科赫以及俄羅斯宇航員阿列克謝·奧夫金寧帶到國際空間站。 機組人員將加入三名已經登上火車站的太空飛行員。

 

MARCH 2019

Boeing conducts first test flight of its CST-100 Starliner capsul
波音公司對其CST-100 Starliner膠囊進行首次試飛

Like SpaceX, Boeing is developing a space capsule to replace NASA』s retired space shuttle fleet. Sometime in March, Its CST-100 Starliner will take its maiden flight aboard an Atlas V rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, with the uncrewed capsule docking with the space station before parachuting back to Earth. If the test is successful, Boeing could conduct crewed test flights of the Starliner in August.

與SpaceX一樣,波音正在開發一種太空艙,以取代NASA退役的航天飛機機隊。 3月份的時候,它的CST-100 Starliner將從佛羅裡達州卡納維拉爾角的一枚Atlas V火箭上進行首次飛行,在飛機返回地球之前,與太空站的固定艙口對接。 如果測試成功,波音可以進行Starliner 在八月的測試飛行。

—- Boeing’s CST-100 Starliner capsule is designed to ferry up to seven astronauts to the International Space Station. Boeing

 

SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy rocket returns to space
SpaceX的獵鷹重型火箭返回太空

SpaceX’s Falcon Heavy booster completed its maiden launch on Feb. 6, 2018, lifting off from Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, and launching a Tesla Roadster into space. On its second flight, which is planned for early in 2019, the huge rocket will carry 25 individual payloads for the U.S. military and NASA, including weather satellites and a space radiation experiment. The Falcon Heavy can lift a heavier payload than any American rocket since NASA』s Saturn V booster, which carried Apollo astronauts to the moon in the 1960s and 』70s.

SpaceX的獵鷹重型助推器於2018年2月6日完成首次發射,從佛羅裡達州卡納維拉爾角的肯尼迪航天中心起飛,並將特斯拉跑車推向太空。 在計劃於2019年初進行的第二次飛行中,這枚巨型火箭將為美國軍方和美國宇航局攜帶25個獨立的載荷,包括氣象衞星和太空輻射實驗品。自從美國宇航局的土星V助推器以來,獵鷹重型飛機可以駕馭比美國任何火箭更重的載荷,土星V助推器是在20世紀60年代和70年代將阿波羅宇航員帶到了月球上。

—- The SpaceX Falcon Heavy launches from Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Feb. 6, 2018.Jim Watson / AFP – Getty Images

 

JUNE 2019

SpaceX launches first crewed test flight of its Crew Dragon capsule
SpaceX將推出其Crew Dragon太空艙的第一次帶人試飛

If the uncrewed test flight of SpaceX』s Crew Dragon is successful, the craft will return to space with two spaceflyers aboard. NASA astronauts Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken will fly Crew Dragon to the space station.

如果SpaceX’s Crew Dragon的無人太空艙的試飛成功,飛行器將返回太空,將兩名太空飛行員載入太空。 NASA宇航員Doug Hurley和Bob Behnken將乘坐Crew Dragon飛往太空站。

Three space station crew members return to Earth
三名空間站工作人員返回地球

NASA astronaut Anne McClain, Canadian astronaut David Saint-Jacques, and Russian cosmonaut Oleg Kononenko will return to Earth in their Soyuz capsule, landing in Kazakhstan sometime in June.

美國宇航局宇航員安妮麥克萊恩,加拿大宇航員大衞聖雅克和俄羅斯宇航員奧列格科諾寧科將通過他們的聯盟號返回地球,並於6月份降落在哈薩克斯坦。

 

JULY 2019

China conducts first test of next-generation crewed spacecraft
中國對下一代載人航天器將進行首次試驗

China is expected to test the successor to its crewed Shenzhou spacecraft sometime in mid-2019, but a detailed timeline of the mission hasn』t yet been revealed. For its first test flight, the reusable 20-ton spacecraft will launch aboard a Chinese Long March 5B rocket without a crew. China currently uses its Shenzhou spacecraft for trips to and from low-Earth orbit.

預計中國將在2019年中期測試神舟號航天器的繼任者,但該任務的詳細時間表尚未公布。 對於首次試飛,可重複使用的20噸重的太空船將在沒有機組人員的情況下在中國長徵5B火箭上發射。 中國目前使用其神舟號飛船進出低地軌道。

50th anniversary of Apollo 11 moon landing
阿波羅11號登月50周年

On July 20, it will be 50 years since astronaut Neil Armstrong became the first human to step foot on the moon. As he climbed down the ladder of his lunar module and stepped onto the surface of the moon in 1969, Armstrong uttered the line that became famous: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” Armstrong and his crewmate Buzz Aldrin explored the moon’s surface for almost three hours before climbing back into their lunar module and heading home.

7月20日,將是宇航員尼爾阿姆斯特朗成為第一個踏上月球的50周年紀念日。 阿姆斯特朗在1969年踩到月球表面時說出了一句名言:「這對於一個人來說是一小步,對整個人類是一個巨大的飛躍。」 阿姆斯特朗和他的同事巴茲·奧爾德林在攀登月球表層並返回之前,探測了月球表面近三個小時。

 

DECEMBER 2019

China launches a sample-return mission to the moon
中國啓動月球樣品回歸任務

After its Chang』e 4 mission to the lunar far side, China will attempt an even more ambitious lunar mission sometime toward the end of the year. Chang』e 5 will include a lander designed to collect samples of lunar rocks and soil and return them to Earth.

嫦娥四號登月之後,中國計劃將在年底前嘗試更加雄心勃勃的月球任務。 嫦娥5號將發射一個用於收集月球岩石和土壤樣本的著陸器並將它們送回地球。

If successful, it would be the first time materials from the moon will have been brought back to Earth since 1976.

如果成功,這將是自1976年以來第一次將月球上的材料帶回地球。